By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development
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Additional info for A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control
Tand and ' The following figure shows in general how the output current or pulse size from a gas ion chamber increases as the electric field is increased. 5 THE GEIGER-MULLER COUNTER In the radionuclide calibrator described previously, bursts of ionization due to the arrival of individual particles of radiation are deliberately smoothed out into a steady current, to provide a constant reading of source activity. For many applications, it is preferable to count the individual particles, and in the Pulse Ionization Chamber the electronics is designed to generate a sharp voltage pulse for each ionizing burst.
A semiconductor. There are numerous compounds which are semiconductors, and many are being explored as potential radiation detectors, but the two most common and well-known materials are silicon and Radiation Safety Officer's Handbook germanium. Silicon detectors have many advantages, especially for detecting charged particles and low energy photons (x and gamma), but germanium, because of its higher atomic number, is preferred for most gamma ray detection. Electrical conduction in germanium and other semiconductors actually depends on the deliberate introduction of foreign or impurity atoms, a process referred to as "doping�.
One face of the container is thin to permit radiation entry, and for low energy gamma or x-ray energies (10 to 50 keV), this window may be made of beryllium or Mylar. The opposite face of the container consists of a quartz window which is transparent to the near ultraviolet scintillations produced, and the inside surface of the container is coated with a material (aluminum oxide) which reflects this wavelength of light. Evacuated Glass Tube Coating Personal monitors based on semiconductor detectors are now available commercially (eg.
A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control by David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development