By Dr. Craig A. Rogers (auth.), Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Janocha (eds.)
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Additional info for Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications
In addition to 20 2. ctures applying forces or changing the shape of the structure,the Nitinol wires can be used to actively change the modal characteristics of the composite by changing the stiffness or state of stress in the structure, thereby, changing its naturalfrequency. Photoelastic damage- control experiments have shown that embeddedNitinol actuatorscan also be used to reduce stress concentrations in notched tensile coupons by creating localized compressive stresses. Polymeric composites with embedded Nitinol wire have been shown  to display large bending deformationwhen activated (Fig.
Polymeric composites with embedded Nitinol wire have been shown  to display large bending deformationwhen activated (Fig. 1). a Fig. 1. Polymeric composites with embeddedNitinol wires displaying large bending deformationwhen activated: (a) composite beam cross- section; (b) beam configuration before activation; (c) deflected beam after SMA activation Like shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuatorscan also exert mechanical forces in response to an applied voltage. Ratherthan undergoinga phase transformation,piezoelectric 'materials change shape when their electrical dipoles spontaneouslyalign in electric fields, causing deformationof the crystal structure (see Sect.
Tagging offers the advantageof distributedin-situ sensing, which is not possible with many types of sensors. Passive techniques involve sensing the distributionof the particles. An example of a passive techniqueis addingmagnetic particlesto an adhesive and using an eddy currentprobe to detect voids in a tagged adhesive bond. Active tagging involves exciting the sensing particles and measuringthe response of the host material (Fig. 7). Applying an alternatingmagnetic field to a polymer tagged with magnetic particles and measuring the resulting force would be an example of active tagging.
Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications by Dr. Craig A. Rogers (auth.), Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Janocha (eds.)