By G. E. Fogg (auth.), Professor Dr. Lal Chand Rai, Professor Dr. Jai Prakash Gaur (eds.)
Algae, quite often held because the relevant fundamental manufacturers of aquatic platforms, inhabit all achieveable habitats. they've got nice skill to deal with a harsh surroundings, e.g. super low and high temperatures, suboptimal and supraoptimal gentle intensities, low availability of crucial meals and different assets, and excessive concentrations of poisonous chemical substances, and so forth. a mess of physiological, biochemical, and molecular concepts allow them to outlive and develop in demanding habitats. This booklet provides a serious account of assorted mechanisms of tension tolerance in algae, a lot of which could happen in microbes and vegetation as well.
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Extra resources for Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms
Although little is known about Ci leakage in macroalgae, such a recycling has the potential of functionally replacing photorespiration of higher plants (or, from an evolutionary point of view, photorespiration of terrestrial plants replaces the Ci recycling mechanism of algae, which cannot function in air). Algae contain several kinds of CA, the occurrence and activities of which are regulated by low CO2 conditions in a way that is not quite understood. Although it has been generally assumed that CA activity always increases at low CO 2 concentrations, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (perhaps the best examined green microalga in this sense) contains two extracellular CAs, one of which is expressed at high and one at low CO2 conditions (cf.
1991); Johnston (1991); Beer (1994); Raven (1997a,b). Except for some special cases dealing directly with measurements on Ci limitations, only works from the last ca. 10 years have been used as references in the following; for older works, the reader is, again, referred to the reviews. Since much research on carbon acquisition and CO 2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) on microalgae is relevant also for macroalgae, the reader is referred also to the Carbon Limitation 23 recent reviews by Kaplan and Reinhold (1999); Moroney and Somanchi (1999) and references therein, as well as to relevant chapters in this Volume.
2. Rubisco carboxylase kinetics, carbonic anhydrase and HCO, uptake. Mar Bioi 112:697-700 Johnston AM (1991) The acquisition of inorganic carbon by marine macroalgae. Can J Bot 69:1123-1132 Johnston AM, Maberly SC, Raven JA (1992) The acquisition of inorganic carbon by four red macroa1gae. Oecologia 92:317 -326 Kaplan A, Reinhold L (1999) CO 2 concentrating mechanisms In photosynthetic microorganisms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Bioi 50:539-570 Kuypers MMM, Pancost RD, Sinninghe Damst JS (1999) A large and abrupt fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration during Cretaceous times.
Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms by G. E. Fogg (auth.), Professor Dr. Lal Chand Rai, Professor Dr. Jai Prakash Gaur (eds.)